Marrakech is first with Fez, founded a rival two centuries earlier, the historic heart of Morocco. Marrakech (was also the name given to the whole country, before one prefers its Spanish strain (Marruecos and therefore Morocco).
It is strategically located near the Atlantic coast, not so far from the Sahara, and at the foot of the Atlas mountains that provide drinking water. The city acquired during many centuries the historical status of the southern capital Maghreb. In 1062, Youssef ben Tachfin seizes Fes, Meknes and Taza. In 1086, he landed in Algeciras and extends its empire to Lisbon and Toledo. His son Ali (1107-1144), who succeeded him at 23, around Marrakech a real adobe ramparts, pierced by monumental gates.
Later, Ibn Tumart, Dynasty Almohad shocked by pomp courses that preceded it and the religious decline of the kingdom, preaching reform for the restoration of a pure faith. With a few companions, he founded a brotherhood called the Almohad. Then come the Saadian dynasty and the period of the protectorate and independence.